CISA Integrating Climate Science & Decision Making in the Carolinas

CISA: Carolinas Integrated Sciences and Assessments, A NOAA RISA Team

CISA Library: Journal Articles


Ward, R., K. Lackstrom, and C. Davis. 2021. Demystifying Drought: Strategies to Enhance the Communication of a Complex Hazard. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.
DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0089.1


Cochran, F., J. Daniel, L. Jackson, and A. Neale. 2020. Earth observation-based ecosystem services indicators for national and subnational reporting of the sustainable development goals. Remote Sensing of Environment, 244, 111796.
DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2020.111796

Eck, M.A., A.R. Murray, A.R. Ward, and C.E. Konrad. 2020. Influence of growing season temperature and precipitation anomalies on crop yield in the southeastern United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 291, 108053.
DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108053

Hung, C.L.J., L.A. James, G.J. Carbone, and J.M. Williams. 2020. Impacts of combined land-use and climate change on streamflow in two nested catchments in the Southeastern United States. Ecological Engineering, 143, 105665.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2019.105665

Jurjonas, M., E. Seekamp, L. Rivers, and B. Cutts. 2020. Uncovering climate (in)justice with an adaptive capacity assessment: A multiple case study in rural coastal North Carolina. Land Use Policy, 94, 104547.
DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104547

Lu, J., G.J. Carbone, X. Huang, K. Lackstrom, and P. Gao. 2020. Mapping the sensitivity of agriculture to drought and estimating the effect of irrigation in the United States, 1950–2016. Agicultural and Forest Meteorology, 292–293.
DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108124.

Tsai, W.-L., R.A. Silva, M.S. Nash, F.V. Cochran, S.E. Prince, D.J. Rosenbaum, … T.J. Buckley. 2020. How do natural features in the residential environment influence women’s self-reported general health? Results from cross-sectional analyses of a U.S. national cohort. Environmental Research, 183, 109176.
DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109176

Tuler, S., K. Dow, and T. Webler. 2020. Assessment of adaptation, policy, and capacity building outcomes from 14 processes. Environmental Science and Policy, 114, 275–282.
DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2020.09.003


Cochran, F., L. Jackson, A. Neale, J. Lovette, and L. Tran, L. 2019. A Community EcoHealth Index from EnviroAtlas Ecosystem Services Metrics. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(15), 2760.
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16152760

Davis, E., C. Wang, and K. Dow. 2019. Comparing Sentinel-2 MSI and Landsat 8 OLI in soil salinity detection: a case study of agricultural lands in coastal North Carolina. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 40(16), 6134–6153.
DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2019.1587205

Lu, J., G.J. Carbone, and P. Gao. 2019. Mapping the agricultural drought based on the long-term AVHRR NDVI and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) in the United Sates, 1981-2013. Applied Geography, 104, 10-20.
DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2019.01.005

Lu, J., G.J. Carbone, and J.M. Grego. 2019. Uncertainty and hotspots in 21st century projections of agricultural drought from CMIP5 models. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 4922.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-41196-z

Payne, H., R. Neubauer, K. Dow, E. Davis, and I. Brown. 2019. Legal Issues When Managing Public Roads Affected by Sea Level Rise: South Carolina (June 1, 2019). Seton Hall Public Law Research Paper Forthcoming.
DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3441440; available at SSRN:

Ward, A., J. Clark, J. McLeod, R. Woodul, H. Moser, and C. Konrad. 2019. Excessive Heat and Preterm Birth in North Carolina, 2011–2015. International Journal of Biometeorology (accepted).

Ward, A., J. Clark, J. McLeod, R. Woodul, H. Moser, and C. Konrad. 2019. The impact of heat exposure on reduced gestational age in pregnant women in North Carolina, 2011-2015. International Journal of Biometeorology, 1-10.
DOI: 10.1007/s00484-019-01773-3



Clark, K.E., E. Chin, M.N. Peterson, K. Lackstrom, K. Dow, M. Foster, and F. Cubbage. 2018. Evaluating Climate Change Planning for Longleaf Pine Ecosystems in the Southeast United States. Journal of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, 5: 160–168.

Deeb, R., D. Tufford, G. Scott, J.G. Moore, and K. Dow. 2018. Impact of Climate Change on Vibrio vulnificus Abundance and Exposure Risk. Estuaries and Coasts
DOI: 10.1007/s12237-018-0424-5

Gao, P., G.J. Carbone, and J. Lu. 2018. Flood simulation in South Carolina watersheds using different precipitation inputs. Advances in Meteorology. Article ID 4085463
DOI: 10.1155/2018/4085463


Altman, E., K. Lackstrom, and H. Mizzell. 2017. Drought and Water Shortages: South Carolina's Response Mechanisms, Vulnerabilities, and Needs. Journal of South Carolina Water Resource., 4, 1, 57-62
Available at:

Gao, P., G.J. Carbone, J. Lu, and D. Guo. 2017. An Area-based Approach for Estimating Extreme Precipitation Probability. Geographical Analysis.
DOI: 10.1111/gean.12148

Lackstrom, K., A. Farris, D. Eckhardt, N. Doesken, H. Reges, J. Turner, K.H. Smith, and R. Ward. 2017. CoCoRaHS Observers Contribute to "Condition Monitoring" in the Carolinas: A New Initiative Addresses Needs for Drought Impacts Information. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98, 2527-2531.
DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0306.1

Lu, J., G.J. Carbone, and P. Gao. 2017. Detrending crop yield data for spatial visualization of drought impacts in the United States, 1895-2014. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 237-238, 196-208.
DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.02.001


Buizer, J., K. Dow, M.E. Black, K.L. Jacobs, A. Waple, R.H. Moss, S. Moser, A. Luers, D.I. Gustafson, T.C. Richmond, S.L. Hays, and C.B. Field. 2016. Building a sustained climate assessment process. Climate Change 135: 23-27.
DOI: 10.1007/s10584-015-1501-4

Cumbie-Ward, R.V., and R.P. Boyles. 2016. Evaluation of a High-Resolution SPI for Monitoring Local Drought Severity. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 55, 2247-2262.
DOI: 10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0106.1

Lackstrom, K., G. Carbone, D. Tufford, and A. Patel. 2016. Climate and Water Resources in the Carolinas: Approaches to Applying Global Climate Change Information to Local Decisions. Journal of South Carolina Water Resources Vol 3: Iss. 1, Article 7.
Available at:

Nolan, C.B., D.L. Tufford, and D.R. Chalcraft. 2016. Needs Assessment of Coastal Land Managers for Drought Onset Indicators in the Southeastern United States. Journal of Coastal Research
DOI: 10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-15-00182.1


Dilling, L., K. Lackstrom, B. Haywood, K. Dow, M.C. Lemos, J. Berggren, and S. Kalafatis. 2015. What Stakeholder Needs Tell Us about Enabling Adaptive Capacity: The Intersection of Context and Information Provision across Regions in the United States. Weather, Climate, and Society 7 (1).
DOI: 10.1175/WCAS-D-14-00001.1

Fly, E.K., T.J. Hilbish, D.S. Weithy, and R.L. Rognstad. 2015. Physiology and biogeography: The response of European mussels (Mytilus spp.) to climate change. American Malacological Bulletin 33: 136-149.
DOI: 10.4003/006.033.0111

Furhmann, C., M. Sugg, C. Konrad, and A. Waller. 2015. Impact of Extreme Heat Events on Emergency Department Visits in North Carolina (2007-2011). Journal of Community Health, 1-11.
DOI: 10.1007/s10900-015-0080-7

Gao, P., G.J. Carbone, and D. Guo. Assessment of NARCCAP Model in Simulating Rainfall Extremes Using a Spatially Constrained Regionalization Method. International Journal of Climatology, in press.
DOI: 10.1002/joc.4500 Abstract

Kabela, E., and G. Carbone. 2015. NARCCAP Model Skill and Bias for the Southeast United States. American Journal of Climate Change, 4, 94-114.
DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.41009

Kovach, M.M., C.E. Konrad II, and C.M. Fuhrmann. 2015. Area-level risk factors for heat-related illness in rural and urban locations across North Carolina, USA. Applied Geography. 60: 175-183.
DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.03.012

Sugg, M., C. Konrad II, and C.M. Fuhrmann. 2015. Relationships between maximum temperature and heat-related illness across North Carolina, USA. International Journal of Biometeorology: 1-13.
DOI: 10.1007/s00484-015-1060-4



Carbone, G. 2014. Managing climate change scenarios for societal impact studies. Physical Geography 35 (1).
DOI: 10.1080/02723646.2013.869714

Kettle, N., K. Dow, S. Tuler, T. Webler, J. Whitehead, K. Miller. 2014. Integrating scientific and local knowledge to inform risk-based management approaches for climate adaptation. Climate Risk Management.
DOI: 10.1016/j.crm.2014.07.001

Lackstrom, K., N. Kettle, B. Haywood, and K. Dow. 2014. Climate-sensitive decisions and time frames: a cross-sectoral analysis of information pathways in the Carolinas. Weather, Climate & Society 6: 238-252.
DOI: 10.1175/WCAS-D-13-00030.1

Petes, L.E., J.F. Howard, B.S. Helmuth, and E.K. Fly. 2014. Science integration into US climate and ocean policy. Nature Climate Change 4: 671-677.
DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2312

Smith, K.H., M. Svoboda, M. Hayes, H. Reges, N. Doesken, K. Lackstrom, K. Dow, and A. Brennan. 2014. Local Observers Fill in the Details on Drought Impact Reporter Maps. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95(11): 1659-1662.
DOI: 10.1175/1520-0477-95.11.1659

Webler, T., S. Tuler, K. Dow, J. Whitehead, and N. Kettle. 2014. Design and evaluation of a local analytic-deliberative process for climate adaptation planning. Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability.
DOI: 10.1080/13549839.2014.930425


Dow, K., B. Haywood, N. Kettle, and K. Lackstrom. 2013. The role of ad hoc networks in supporting climate change adaptation: a case study from the Southeastern United States. Regional Environmental Change 13 (1).
DOI: 10.1007/s10113-013-0440-8

Griffin, M., B. Montz, and J. Arrigo. 2013. Evaluating climate change induced water stress: A case study of the Lower Cape Fear basin, NC. Applied Geography. 40(1):115-128.
DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.02.009

Haywood, B., A. Brennan, K. Dow, N. Kettle, and K. Lackstrom. 2013. Negotiating a mainstreaming spectrum: climate change response and communication in the Carolinas. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning.


Kettle, N.P. 2012. Exposing Compounding Uncertainties in Sea Level Rise Assessments. Journal of Coastal Research 28 (1):161-173.
DOI: 10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-10-00011.1


Rhee, J., and G.J. Carbone. 2011. Estimating Drought Conditions for Regions with Limited Precipitation Data. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 50 (3):548-559.
DOI: 10.1175/2010JAMC2604.1


Rhee, J., J. Im, and G.J. Carbone. 2010. Monitoring agricultural drought for arid and humid regions using multi-sensor remote sensing data. Remote Sensing of Environment 114 (12):2875-2887.
DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2010.07.005



Dow, K. 2009. News coverage of drought impacts and vulnerability in the US Carolinas, 1998-2007. Natural Hazards 54 (2):497-518.
DOI: 10.1007/s11069-009-9482-0

Dow, K., R. Murphy, and G.J. Carbone. 2009. Consideration of User Needs and Spatial Accuracy in Drought Mapping. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45 (1):187-197.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2008.00270.x

Hwang, Y.S., and G.J. Carbone. 2009. Ensemble Forecasts of Drought Indices Using a Conditional Residual Resampling Technique. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48 (7):1289-1301.
DOI: 10.1175/2009JAMC2071.1


Carbone, G.J., J. Rhee, H.P. Mizzell, and R. Boyles. 2008. A regional-scale drought monitoring tool for the Carolinas. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89 (1):20-28.
DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-89-1-20

Rhee, J., G.J. Carbone, and J. Hussey. 2008. Drought Index Mapping at Different Spatial Units. Journal of Hydrometeorology 9:1523-1534.
DOI: 10.1175/2008JHM983.1

Rhee, J., J. Im, G.J. Carbone, and J.R. Jensen. 2008. Delineation of climate regions using in-situ and remotely-sensed data for the Carolinas. Remote Sensing of Environment 112 (6):3099-3111.
DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2008.03.001


Dow, K., and G.J. Carbone. 2007. Climate Science and Decision Making. Geography Compass 1 (3):302-324.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-8198.2007.00036.x

Dow, K., R.E. O'Connor, B. Yarnal, G.J. Carbone, and C.L. Jocoy. 2007. Why worry? Community water system managers' perceptions of climate vulnerability. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 17 (2):228-237.
DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.08.003

Rhee, J., and G.J. Carbone. 2007. A Comparison of Weekly Monitoring Methods of the Palmer Drought Index. Journal of Climate 20:6033-6044.
DOI: 10.1175/2007JCLI1693.1


Carbone, G.J., and K. Dow. 2005. Water resource management and drought forecasts in South Carolina. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41(1):145-155.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2005.tb03724.x

O'Connor, R.E., B. Yarnal, K. Dow, C.L. Jocoy, and G.J. Carbone. 2005. Feeling at risk matters: Water managers and the decision to use forecasts. Risk Analysis 25 (5):1265-1275.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2005.00675.x